ZERO AS A NUMBER - Brahmagupta Period

Ancient literature shows that in India, either the symbol or the word "kha" was used for zero around 200 A.D. Again, the usage was to indicate the empty place. It was the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta (628 A.D.) who used zero as number for the first time.

Brahmagupta was the originator of the concept of negative numbers, and he needed a number called "zero" for developing his mathematical ideas. His writings show the rules that he developed with regard to operations with numbers that are positive, negative or zero. Brahmagupta's rules for addition are:

The sum of a negative number and zero is negative.

The sum of a positive number and zero is positive.

The sum of zero and zero is zero.


His rules for division are,

Positive divided by positive, or negative by negative, is positive.

Cipher (zero) divided by cipher is nought.

Positive divided by negative is negative.

Negative divided by positive is negative.

Empty Place Indicator Bhaskara Period