Basic Linux Commands
One does not need to know very many commands in order to get around on a connection to a remote machine pretty easily. Here we give a simple list of some of the most commonly used commands for Linux/Unix. Note that most commands can accept options that change their behavior. For example, ls provides a listing of the contents of the current directory, while ls -l gives that listing in long format, including many more details about each file in the directory. On the other hand, ls -a lists all the files in the directory, including the "hidden" ones. We can mix options simply by chaining them together; e.g. ls -la gives a listing of all files in a long format.
Remember that you can get a full description of the usage of any command by typing man commandname in a terminal.
|chmod||Change Mode - file permissions||
chmod u+w file_name
chmod 755 file_name
|cp||Copy files||cp from_file to_file|
|exit||Exit the shell||exit|
|less||List contents of a file||less file_name|
|ls||List filenames in a directory||ls
|mkdir||Make a Directory||mkdir directory_name|
|mv||Move a file||mv from_file to_file|
|nano||Start a primitive editor||nano file_name|
|pwd||Print Working Directory||pwd|
|rm||Remove a file||rm file_name|
|rmdir||Remove a Directory||rmdir directory_name|
There are a few "wildcard" characters that can match many things. The question mark matches any single character. Thus, ls image?.jpg would list all of the files image1.jpg, image9.jpg, and imageA.jpg on a directory, but would not list image23.jpg The asterisk matches any number of characters, so that ls image*.jpg would list image1.jpg, image23.jpg and image49027.jpg.