My research combines experimental and theoretical techniques to investigate mechanisms in virology, immunology, and infectious disease epidemiology. Mathematical studies used in conjunction with data can suggest unforeseen biological mechanisms, determine biologically important rate parameters and evaluate pathogenic mechanisms that are difficult to test directly. A systems biology approach that couples mathematics with experiments has the potential to advance our basic understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and to lead to new therapeutic strategies.
Currently we are examining why the immune system fails to control HIV-1 infection. We use mathematical models (deterministic and stochastic) of HIV-1 dynamics with experimental data to elucidate the determinants of immune protection. The aim of such work is to develop effective vaccine strategies and to uncover fundamental viral or immune mechanisms.
Other projects address issues in infectious disease emergence, viral evolution, and pathogen population dynamics.
Smith RJ, Schwartz EJ. (2008) Predicting the potential impact of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte HIV vaccine: how often should you vaccinate and how strong should the vaccine be? Math Biosci 212:180–187.
Schwartz EJ, Bodine EN, Blower S. (2007) Effectiveness and Efficiency of Imperfect Therapeutic HSV-2 Vaccines. Human Vaccines 3(6):231-238.
Schwartz EJ, Szczech LA, Ross MJ, Klotman ME, Winston JA, Klotman PE. (2005) Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and the Epidemic of HIV+ End-Stage Renal Disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 16(8):2412-20.
Schwartz EJ, Blower S. (2005) Predicting the Potential Individual- and Population-Level Effects of Imperfect Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines. J Infect Dis 191(10):1734-46.
Schwartz EJ, Fierer DS, Neumann AU, Keller MJ, Parkas V, Klotman ME, Winston JA, Klotman PE. (2002) HIV-1 Dynamics in Hemodialysis Patients. AIDS 16(9):1301-1303.
Schwartz EJ, Neumann AU, Teixeira AV, Bruggeman LA, Rappaport J, Perelson AS, Klotman PE. (2002) Effect of Target Cell Availability on HIV-1 Production in Vitro. AIDS 16(3):341-345.
Schwartz EJ, Cara A, Snoeck H, Ross MD, Sunamoto M, Reiser J, Mundel P, Klotman PE. (2001) HIV-1 Induces Loss of Contact Inhibition in Podocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol 12(8):1677-84.